Posted by: Colin Wiles05/11/2013 10:05 am
In two previous blogs I have explored some of the uses to which land in England is put. I’ve written about horses and sheep, and highlighted, for example, the fact that horse-grazing takes up as much land as half of the built up area of England – enough for millions of new homes.
Why am I turning my attention to golf? I admit that I approach the subject with some trepidation because I know that many senior figures in our sector like their golf! But the fact is that this minority sport is an extremely greedy consumer of land. Per head of participants it takes up more land than any other sport.
This was brought home to me by reading reports of a recent High Court case about a proposed development in Surrey. In brief, last year Mole Valley District Council gave planning permission for the development of an 18-hole golf course and country club on the 150 hectare Cherkley estate in the Surrey Hills, the former home of Lord Beaverbrook. They made this decision against officer advice and the written planning consent made reference to the “need” for additional recreational facilities in the distirict. A group of local residents launched a legal challenge and High Court judge Mr Justice Haddon Cave has now found in their favour - and against the Council and the developer. Much of his judgement turned on the definition of the “need” for additional facilities in the area, as opposed to “demand”, an argument that will be familiar to many in our sector. Christopher Katkowski QC, for the developer, tried to argue that demand and need were one and the same but the judge rejected this. You can read his full judgement here but the followng extract is worth repeating:
“The developers argued that proof of private “demand” for exclusive golf facilities equated to “need”. This proposition is fallacious. The golden thread of public interest is woven through the lexicon of planning law, including into the word “need”. Pure private “demand” is antithetical to public “need”, particularly very exclusive private demand. Once this is understood, the case answers itself.” Well said!
(By the way, I have seen Mr Katkowski QC in action at a planning appeal in Cambridge. He is a fearsome advocate but on this occasion his arguments were comprehensively demolished by the judge. That is very pleasing).
The judge stated that Mole Valley District already has 11 golf courses and Surrey has 141 full-sized courses. It was also revealed that there are 192 golf courses within 20 miles of Cherkley and 627 courses within a 50 mile radius!
These figures astonished me, so I did some more digging and discovered that there are around 2,000 18-hole golf courses in England as well as hundreds of smaller 9-hole and pitch and putt courses, and at least 600 golf driving ranges. Each 18 hole course requires up to 90 hectares of land (including practice courses, clubhouses, car-parking etc) so my best estimate is that golfing establishments take up around 270,000 hectares in England – that’s 2 percent of England’s total land area of 13.4 million hectares. Accurate figures are hard to come by, so if anyone can contradict my figures I would be pleased to amend them. But by my reckoning English golf courses use an amount of land that is equivalent to one fifth of England’s total built up area (10 percent of England is built upon) and could provide at least 8 million homes.
Yet many golf courses are losing members. Mr Justice Haddon Cave quoted reports showing that 90 percent of golf clubs in the UK had membership vacancies and 80 percent no longer had a waiting list. What’s more, golf has an image problem. Of the 850,000 people who play golf regularly at least 75% are men and only 2% are non-white.
I’m not for a moment suggesting that golf does not give pleasure to many thousands of people, or that millions of new homes should be built across the golf courses of England! If groups of men wish to spoil a good walk by chasing a little white ball they are perfectly at liberty to do so. But it’s also worth bearing in mind that golf courses drink huge amounts of water, are not particularly brimming with wildlife and are generally closed to public access. Yet many countryside campaigners argue that we should not touch any greenfield land whatsoever, either because of its wildlife and amenity value or because we need every scrap of land to provide for our present and future food needs, or both. Well in the case of horses and golf the food argument is spurious, and in the case of golf the wildlife and amenity argument is tenuous, at best. Some golf courses spoil the landscapes they occupy.
At the risk of boring the readers of this blog I repeat: There is no shortage of land in this country. We have more than enough land to build the homes that we need and to stop the awful cramming, overcrowding and shortages of affordable, decent homes now blighting our towns and cities. We just need some facts to enter into the debate in order to counter some of the scaremongering and lies that pervades the subject of land use and development, and to have a grown-up discussion about the way we prioritise our use of land.
From Inside out
An independent look at the housing sector and beyond from Colin Wiles